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论文题目:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译 学生姓名: 专 业: 英 语 学号: 方向: 教师教育

指导教师

2012 年 5 月

The Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms and Idiomatic Translation

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the B. A. Degree in English Language and Literature By

Undergraduate Program School of Foreign Languages Hubei University of Science and Technology

Supervisor: Signature:

Approved May 2012

论文原创性声明

本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师的指导下, 独立进行研究工作所取得的成果。除文中已经注明引用的内容外, 本论文不含任何其他个人或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品成果。 对本文的研究做出重要贡献的个人和集体,均已在文中以明确方 式标明。本人完全意识到违反本声明所引起的一切法律责任将由 本人承担。

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CONTENTS
1. Introduction · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -11.1 Background of the analysis · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -11.2 The Purpose of the analysis · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -21.3 The structure of the thesis · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -32. Language and Culture· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -32.1 The definition of language · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -32.2 The definition of culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -42.3 Relationship between language and culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -42.4 Divergences between language and culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -53. Idioms and Culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -53.1 The definition and characteristics of idioms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -53.2 Relationship between idioms and culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -63.3 The importance of understanding idioms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -64. Main Aspects of Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -74.1 Living environment · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -74.2 Historical culture · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -74.3 Religious beliefs · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -84.4 Customs or living habits · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -84.5 Values· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -95. Methods of Idiomatic Translation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -95.1 Some common methods of translating idioms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · -95.1.1 Literal translation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 10 5.1.2 Liberal translation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 10 5.1.3 Substitution · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 10 5.2 Some other methods of translating idioms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 11 5.2.1 Literal translation + liberal translation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 11 5.2.2 Literal / liberal translation + annotation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 11 5.2.3 Omission · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 12 6. Conclusion · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 12 Bibliography · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 12 Acknowledgements · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - 13 -

湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

The Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms and Idiomatic Translation
学生: 指导教师:单位:外国语学院
摘要:英汉两种语言包含着大量的生动形象的习语。习语是一种广为流传的具有特定含义的固定短语,在人们的日 常生活中起着越来越重要的作用。由于地理、历史、宗教信仰、风俗习惯和价值观等方面的差异,英汉习语承载着 不同的民族文化特色和文化信息,它们与文化传统紧密相连、不可分割。习语中的文化因素往往是翻译中的难点。 为了使读者更好地理解并运用习语,在翻译中译者必须考虑其背后的文化因素。本文将从文化背景入手,分析英汉 习语的文化差异,并探讨一些习语翻译方法。 关键词:习语; 文化差异; 翻译方法

Abstract: Both English and Chinese language contain a lot of vivid idioms which are widespread fixed phrases with specific meanings and play a more and more important role in people?s daily life. English and Chinese idioms carry different ethnic features and information of culture because of different living environments, historical cultures, religious beliefs, customs, values, etc. Thus, people find it hard to understand idioms correctly without the help of the cultural context. They are inseparable. Sometimes cultural factor is the difficult point in translation. It should be taken into account in translation to make people understand and use idioms better. Therefore, from the cultural point of view, this thesis will talk about the cultural differences between English and Chinese idioms and find some methods of idiomatic translation. Key words: idioms; cultural differences; translation methods

1. Introduction
1.1 Background of the analysis
With the gradual deepening of China?s opening-up to the outside world and the integration of English and Chinese cultures, idioms play an increasingly important role in people?s communication. However, idioms, as the crystallization of human wisdom and an important part of languages, are strongly culturally-colored and may result in difficulties in communication. So idioms have always been the target of many scholars? studies. There has been a long tradition in the study of idioms. According to Peng Qinghua (2007), there are four major stages: 1. The early linguists, like Smith, focused on the sources and ideational function of idioms. They classified and paraphrased the sources of idioms and emphasized their basic
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

features. 2. Between 1930s and 1950s, linguists like C.F.Hockett, emphasized the important role of context in identifying and interpreting idioms, and complemented the integrity, coagulation and irreplaceability of idioms. 3. After 1950s, linguists like B.Fraser, began to use the transformational generative grammar to study the deep structure of idioms, especially the possibility of conversing idioms, and proposed Frozenness Hierarchy Theory. 4. In the past years, researches of idioms had been carried out in the fields of culture, functions, pragmatics, etc. Although domestic and foreign linguists have spent much time on idioms, “much past work on English idioms has often been concerned with typology, semantics, syntactic behaviour, etc. (Chang Chenguang, 2004)” to the neglect of cultural elements in idioms and proper translation methods. Since 1990s, scholars have paid more attention to cultural elements in English and Chinese idioms (Guan Yuyu, 2005). Now domestic and foreign scholars attach their importance to cultural connotations and translation strategies of idioms.

1.2 The Purpose of the analysis
As idioms play an increasingly important role in cross-cultural communication and cultural connotations and translation strategies of idioms draw scholar ?s attention, the present thesis sets out to analyze the cultural aspects of English and Chinese idioms comparatively and put forward the translation methods for the idioms. It is acknowledged that language and culture are interactive and can not be separated. Idioms, as the essence of languages, reflect the native culture. So they inevitably interact with their cultures. However, discrepancy exists between different languages and cultures, which may often result in obstacles in mutual understanding between the participants who come from different cultural backgrounds. If not properly handled in translation, discrepancy will cause cultural misunderstanding or cultural loss. In other words, with the awareness of cultural differences between English and Chinese idioms, people may avoid much misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication by trying to recognize the real intention of other people. Therefore, analyzing the cultural differences between English and Chinese idioms in the perspectives of living environment, historical culture, religious beliefs, customs and values will help people to comprehend the cultural elements in idioms and adopt proper translation methods. As to the translation, Eugene Nida has said that for truly successful translation, being familiar with two kinds of cultures is even more important than grasping two languages,
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

because the word only makes sense in its own cultural background. Thus, taking culture elements into consideration is the key point to the successful translation of English and Chinese idioms. Many forerunners have put forward some penetrating views. And the thesis presents some opinions on the basis of analyzing and synthesizing their views so that people can understand and use idioms appropriately and cross-cultural communication can be improved.

1.3 The structure of the thesis
There are six parts under the thesis: Part One introduces the background, purpose and structure of the thesis. Part Two defines language and culture respectively, and talks about the relationship between them, as well as divergences. Part Three is about idioms and culture, covering their relationship, and the definition, features and importance of idioms. Part Four makes a comparison on cultural aspects of English and Chinese idioms. Part Five introduces some common methods of translating idioms and other appropriate methods of translating idioms. The sixth part summarizes the whole thesis by reinforcing the significance of the comparative studies on cultural aspects of English and Chinese idioms and gives some tentative advice to the translation of them.

2. Language and Culture
2.1 The definition of language
It is widely accepted that the possession of language distinguishes man from other animals. It is one of the unique possessions of human beings and one of our most articulated means of expressing ideas and thoughts. But what is language? It is far from easy to answer this question. Although scholars have offered various definitions, so far no completely satisfactory definition seems to have been given because scholars usually make a point of one or two aspects of the language. Below are some often used ones. Oxford Advanced Learner ?s English-Chinese Dictionary (2004) defines language as “the system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people of a particular country”. Sapir (1921:8, quoted from Guan Yuyu 2005) stated, “Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. ” Harmers ﹠ Blane (1989:116, quoted from Guan Yuyu 2005) thought, “Language is a component of culture along with other entities like , for example, values, beliefs and norms.”
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

Halliday ﹠ Matthiessen (1999:511, quoted from Chang Chenguang, 2004) said, “A language is a system for creating meaning…its meaning potential has evolved around three motifs---what we refer to as the ?metafunctions? of ideational, interpersonal and textual…” According to the important features of languages that most linguists agreed on, a generally acceptable definition is: Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Liu Runqing & Wen Xu, 2006). On the basis of the above mentioned points, people may find that human language is not isolated but closely related to social culture and the existence of language is mainly for the purpose of human communication. Society is both the creator and the container of language (Liu Runqing & Wen Xu, 2006). Therefore, language is inseparable from human society and its culture. It grows and develops with the growth and development of a society.

2.2 The definition of culture
In the last section, the definition of language has been discussed and some problems it is faced with have been found. And the definition of culture is confronted with similar, if not more complicated problems. Different scholars define “culture” with their inclinations, so it is hard to give a completely satisfactory definition. Below are some often quoted ones. Following the definitions of sociologists and anthropologists, the term “culture” refers to the total pattern of beliefs, customs, institutions, objects and techniques that characterize the life of a human community. According to Deng Yanchang and Liu Runqing (1989), “culture refers to the entire way of a society, ?the ways of a people?”. Huang Shuping (2011) stated, “In the broad sense, culture refers to all material and spiritual treasure human beings have created in their practice. In the narrow sense, culture refers to social ideology and corresponding systems and organizations, sometimes includes education, science, literature, art, and so on in order to distinguish it from the knowledge of politics, economics, military, etc. and facilities. ” The definition of culture has varied a lot and no unanimous conclusion has been drawn so far.

2.3 Relationship between language and culture
It is widely known that language is closely related to culture, can be said as part of culture and plays a very important role in it. Some social scientists consider it the keystone of culture. With language, human?s experience and perception of the world known as culture can be handed down from one generation to the next; without language, they maintain, culture would not be possible. On the other hand, language is influenced and shaped by culture, just as what Deng Yanchang ﹠ Wen Xu (2006) have said, “Language is culturally transmitted”, and at the same time reflects culture. It can be said that language is the symbolic
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

representation of a people, and it comprises their historical and cultural backgrounds as well as their approaches to life and their ways of living and thinking. It is evident that language and culture are inseparable. No language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture and vice versa. They interact with each other, so the understanding of one requires the understanding of the other.

2.4 Divergences between language and culture
Scholars have been interested in the diversity of languages and cultures for a long time. They put forward the idea that different people speak differently because they think differently and that they think differently because of different languages and different cultures they are exposed to. Every ethnic group has its shared language and culture which is different from those of other ethnic groups and passed from generation to generation. But divergences between language and culture exist in many aspects, such as the way people think and behave, geographic areas, social status, personal characteristics, time, beliefs, values, etc. As cultures are diverse, so languages are diverse. It is only natural then that with differences in cultures and differences in languages, difficulties often arise in communication between cultures and across cultures. There always exist obstacles in mutual understanding between the participants who belong to different cultures and speak different languages. Thus, understanding or communication is not always easy. From the analysis of language and culture, it can be concluded that language and culture are interdependent and inseparable. For one thing, the using and understanding of language are based on its cultural background. For another thing, language is like a mirror, so each culture inevitably has some inflection in its language. The differences in culture will be embodied in different levels of language system. Therefore, the two can not be separated when different language systems, such as English and Chinese, are studied. Both English and Chinese are rich in idiomatic expressions which are peculiar to language and are embodiment of culture. In the next part, the author will analyze idioms and culture.

3. Idioms and Culture
3.1 The definition and characteristics of idioms
In the magnificent and vast English culture and Chinese culture, idioms as a special form of language exist in both of them and carry a large amount of cultural information such as
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

geography, history, living habits, values, etc. Idioms are from various aspects of culture. They are embodiment of culture. Then what are idioms? According to Oxford Advanced Learner ?s English-Chinese Dictionary (2004), an idiom is “a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words”. Many domestic and foreign scholars have defined “idioms” from different angles too. Based on forerunners? views and the definition of idioms made by McCarthy, Chang Chenguang (2004), a Chinese scholar, has given a definition that is generally accepted: An idiom is “a conventionalized multi-word expression whose syntactic, lexical, and phonological form is to a greater or lesser degree fixed, and whose semantics and discoursal functions are opaque or specialized, also to a greater or lesser degree”. People can infer idioms with a wide range from this definition. In the broad sense, idioms comprise proverbs, sayings, slangs, allusions, etc. After understanding the term “idioms”, the author will turn to probe the features of idioms. According to Dang Qunying (2010), idioms are integral, culturally-colored and rhetorical. Chen Yan (2011) thinks that idioms have two main features: integral in semantics and fixed in structure. However, Peng Qinghua (2007) thinks that characteristics of idioms should be divided into general characteristics and unique characteristics. The general characteristics are conventional in use, fixed in structure and integral in language. And the unique characteristics are diverse in culture and functions, unique in semantics and complex in types. Views of this issue are abundant. But they are similar in connotations and the author thinks the view of Peng Qinghua is relatively comprehensive.

3.2 Relationship between idioms and culture
Just as language is inseparable from culture, so are idioms from language and culture which they stem from. Idioms are derived from people?s practice in the process of language development. So idioms are born in the soil of a certain culture. They are the fruit of human wisdom and essence of language. On the other hand, idioms are the carrier of culture; they reflect various aspects of culture. From idioms, the meaning of culture can be touched and cultural differences can be peeked at.

3.3 The importance of understanding idioms
Judging from the close relationship between idioms and culture, it is important to understand idioms. What?s more, with the development of globalization, cross-cultural communication is more and more frequent and nationals of different countries are eager to learn cultures from other countries. For example, people can see a few foreigners participate in some Chinese TV programs such as Chinese Bridge and Walk of Fame, and idioms, as the
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

carrier of culture, are often used by them. This shows the importance of understanding idioms. Having a good knowledge of idioms indicates that one is learned to some extent, and it is beneficial to removing communication barriers and promoting cultural exchanges. The first and foremost thing which should be done next is to learn cultural differences from English and Chinese idioms.

4. Main Aspects of Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms
4.1 Living environment
The emergence of idioms is closely related to human?s work and life. For instance, Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. Its fisheries, shipbuilding industry and maritime industry take a large proportion in the economy as well as a special position. So English idioms are much more related to the sea such as “a plain sailing” (一帆风顺), “all at sea” (不知所措), “keep one?s head above water” (奋力图存), “between the devil and the deep sea” (进退维谷), “have an oar in everyman?s boat” (多管闲事) and so on. Instead, China is an agricultural country on the Asian continent and people?s life can not be separated from the land. Therefore, Chinese idioms are much more related to agricultural activities such as “瓜熟
蒂落” (things will be settled when conditions are ripe), “种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆” (as a man sows,

so shall he reap), “瑞雪兆丰年” (A fall of seasonable snow gives promise of a fruitful year) and so forth. Many figurative images of English and Chinese idioms are distinct because of the different living environments. When people express the waste of money, the idiom “spend money like water” is used in English, while “挥金如土” (“土” means soil) is used in Chinese. In addition, different climates and seasons cause cultural differences in idioms too. As China is located in Eastern Hemisphere, “east wind” in Chinese culture refers to “wind in spring” and “west wind” refers to “wind in winter”. While Britain is located in Western Hemisphere and belongs to maritime climate, it is the west wind that heralds the coming of spring and the east wind that heralds the arrival of winter.

4.2 Historical culture
Historical culture is formed by a specific history, development and historical legacy, and is composed of allusions, decrees, historical events, fables, literary works, etc. In English, a large number of idioms come from the works of famous writers and the Greek and Roman
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

mythologies such as “If winter comes, can spring be far behind? ” (冬天来了,春天还会远吗? from the works of Shelley Ode to the West Wind), “a girl Friday” (忠实可靠的女助理, from the works of Defoe Robinson Crusoe), “Achilles? heel” (致命的弱点), “meet one?s waterloo” (一败
涂地), “a Pandora?s box” (潘朵拉的盒子), “the Trojan Horse” (特洛伊木马), “arrow of Cupid”

(丘比特之箭) and so on. Similarly, a lot of Chinese idioms come from Chinese literature. For example, “刻舟求剑” (carve a mark on gunwale in the moving boat whereas a sword was lost, take measures regardless of change in circumstances), “揠苗助长” (pull up the seedlings in order to help them grow faster; do harm to a thing by being over-enthusiastic about it) and “精
卫填海” (the mythical bird trying to fill up the sea with pebbles, a person with strong will) are

respectively from 《吕氏春秋》 (Annals of Lu), 《孟子》 (Mencius) and 《山海经》 (The Mountain and Sea Bible). Apparently, as for idioms of this kind, people must be familiar with them and fully comprehend their cultural connotations.

4.3 Religious beliefs
Religion, as a cultural phenomenon, is a vital part of human thoughts. It causes great cultural difference between people with different religious beliefs. Different religious beliefs breed different idioms. In western countries, especially in England and American, people mainly hold the Christian faith. Thus, English idioms reflect the influence of Christianity. For example, “God bless you” (上帝保佑你), “God helps those who help themselves” (天助自助者), “in the lap of the gods” (难以预料) and “as old as Adams” (极古老的). However, Chinese culture is deeply affected by Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism among which the influence of Buddhism, which was brought in China about two thousand years ago, is the most inveterate. And Chinese people believe that everything is in the control of the Buddha. Idioms about region are also mainly related to Buddhism such as “借花献佛” (to present Buddha with borrowed flowers, to borrow something to make a gift of it), “平时不烧香,临时抱佛脚” (neglect to burn one?s joss stick before an idol in times of peace, then embrace the Buddha?s feet in a crisis), “道高一尺, 魔高一丈” (when the truth grows high to one foot, the evil grows to ten feet; truth can?t beat evil), “五体投地” (to throw oneself down at somebody?s feet in admiration) and so on.

4.4 Customs or living habits
Saussure said, “The customs or living habits of a nation are often reflected in its language…” (Saussure, 1999, quoted from Feng Qinghua & Mu Lei, 2008) Idioms, as a part of language, also reflect the customs or living habits of a nation. (Liu Weiqiang, 2004, quoted
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

from Wang Ning, 2011) In China, diet is people?s main concern , so people will say “你吃了
吗” (Have you had your breakfast/lunch/supper) to each other when they meet. Whereas,

English people are mainly concerned about their work, so they usually say “How do you do” to each other. Due to the different national psychology, English and Chinese people have different attitudes towards animals, especially dogs and dragons. In the west, dogs are regarded as the most loyal friends of humans, so most English idioms about dogs are complimentary in meanings such as “every dog has his day” (时来运转), “a lucky dog” (幸运儿), “love me, love my dog” (爱屋及乌) and so forth. In China, dogs are condemned. Chinese people often say “狗
仗人势”, “狗眼看人低”, “狐朋狗友” and so on. All the Chinese idioms mentioned above are

derogatory in meanings. In the eyes of Chinese people, a dragon is regarded as sacredness, loftiness and national spirit. Hence comes the idioms “龙凤呈祥, 龙腾虎跃, 龙争虎斗, 乘龙快
婿, 群龙无首”, while in western countries, it is a symbol of evil.

4.5 Values
Cultural differences in values embodies in different personal concepts and collective concepts. English people think that personal value is most important. There are many English idioms about personal enterprising spirit, personal power and personal will. For instance, “every man is the architect of his own fortune” (自己的幸福靠自己), “where there is a will, there is a way” (有志者事竟成), and “a bird in hand is worth two in the bush” (一鸟在手胜过二
鸟在林). Nevertheless, Chinese people attach much importance to social value and the spirit of

selflessness. They are reserved, implicit and reluctant to become striking. Hence comes idioms “单丝不成线,独木不成林”, “大公无私”, “树大招风,人大惹议”, “人怕出名猪怕壮”.

5. Methods of Idiomatic Translation
In the forth part, it has been learned that cultural differences of English and Chinese idioms reflect in living environments, historical cultures, religious beliefs, customs and values, which is helpful for people to understand idioms. But it is not enough. People also need to master effective methods of idiomatic translation. Translation is a kind of linguistic activity that faithfully expresses one language in another. (Feng Qinghua & Mu Lei, 2008) And its purpose is to get information exchanged and overcome barriers between languages.

5.1 Some common methods of translating idioms
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

According to Feng Qinghua, Mu Lei and Chen Kefang, there are three methods of idiomatic translation used frequently by people. 5.1.1 Literal translation Literal translation is a method in which people replace the source language directly with the target language in the same meaning or translate source language literally but not word for word to reserve the original language style as much as possible, on the condition that people don?t change any aspect of the original text. Although English and Chinese belong to different ethnics, the two kinds of nationals live on one earth and have common views of many things. So the literal translation can be adopted in the translation between English and Chinese. For example, 1) to strike while the iron is hot 趁热打铁 2) to break the record 打破记录 3) a castle in the air 空中楼阁 4) 路遥知马力,日久见人心。 A long road tests a horse’s strength and a long task proves a man’s heart. 5) 引狼入室 to bring the wolves into the house

5.1.2 Liberal translation Due to the influence of cultural differences, people have to give up the original text’s literal meaning in order to keep the target language in accordance with the source language. When the two kinds of languages express different meanings, people should adopt liberal translation which is a kind of translation according to meaning. For example, as easy as pie 易如反掌 be wise after the event 事后诸葛亮 live like cat and dog 成天吵架 落花流水 to be shattered to pieces 粗枝大叶 to be crude and careless

5.1.3 Substitution Substitution refers to use idioms of the target language that have similar meanings but
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

different images to substitute corresponding idioms of the source language. In this way, there is no need to keep the equivalence of images. For example, as strong as a horse 力大如牛 to throw pears before swine 对牛弹琴 like a cat on hot bricks 热锅上的蚂蚁 打草惊蛇 to wake a sleeping dog 挥金如土 to spend money like water

5.2 Some other methods of translating idioms
According to some scholars, some other appropriate methods of idiomatic translation can be found such as the combination of literal translation and liberal translation, the combination of literal or liberal translation and annotation and omission. 5.2.1 Literal translation + liberal translation Sometimes people may face such a problem: part of an idiom can be precisely translated by literal translation while the other part can not. Faced with this situation, both literal translation and liberal translation should be adopted. For instance, “The mischievous kids ran away like a bat out of the hell after they broke the window glass of the old man.” (打破老人 的窗玻璃后, 这些调皮的孩子们飞也似的逃跑了。 ) In this sentence, “ran away like” can be translated directly and “a bat out of the hell” need to be translated liberally. This idiom literally means “飞出地狱的蝙蝠”. It describes that the bat tries its best to escape from the fire in the hell and indicates the bat escapes very fast. So it can be translated into “飞似的” or “风驰电掣般的”. 5.2.2 Literal / liberal translation + annotation As to those allusions or syntactic structures that haven’t been learned by readers of the target language or are difficult for them to understand, annotations can be added to idiomatic translation, which makes readers know the origins and backgrounds of idioms. For example, “守株待兔” can be translated as “waiting by the stump and waiting for a hare (From the story of a peasant who, seeing a hare run headlong against a tree stump and break its neck, abandoned his plough and waited by the stump in the hope that another hare would do the

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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

same thing); “The touch of Midas” can be translated as “点物成金术 (Midas 是人名, 凡是他接触到的东西一律变成黄金。); “南柯一梦” can be translated as “Nanke dream, a fond dream (Nanke is a name of a place in a legend). The above examples show that annotations make readers have a better understanding of idioms. 5.2.3 Omission As some Chinese idioms are antitheses which have symmetric structures, similar meanings and similar rhetoric but English idioms are not, omission is applied to translating this kind of Chinese idioms. People only need to translate half part of an idiom in order to avoid repetition. For example, people translate “铜墙铁壁” into “wall of bronze”, “街 谈巷议” into “street gossip”, “贪官污吏” into “corrupt officials” and so on.

6. Conclusion
To sum up, the thesis has mainly discussed the cultural differences between English and Chinese idioms reflected in different living environments, historical cultures, religious beliefs, customs and values, and then has introduced some relatively effective translation methods, which can help people understand idioms. However, it is difficult to master idioms. In order to understand idioms much better, people should read as much as possible and accumulate rich knowledge of them. Certainly there are many deficiencies in this thesis. Please offer your valuable advice.

Bibliography
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

[1] Chang Chenguang (常晨光,2004),《英语习语与人际意义》 。广州:中山大学出版社。 [2] Chen Yan (陈岩, 2011), 习语定义本质、 分类原则和认知机制, 《中国科技信息》(1) 。 [3] Dang Qunying (党群英,2010), 论英汉习语的翻译, 《考试周刊》 (4) 。 [4] Deng Yanchang & Liu Runqing (邓炎昌、刘润清,1989),《语言与文化:英汉语言与文 化对比》 。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。 [5] Feng Qinghua & Chen Kefang (冯庆华、陈科芳,2008),《汉英翻译基础教程》 。北京: 高等教育出版社。 [6] Feng Qinghua & Mu Lei (冯庆华、穆雷,2008),《英汉翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教 育出版社。 [7] Guan Yuyu (官煜瑜,2005), 英汉习语文化对比与翻译研究,硕士学位论文。福建: 福建师范大学。 [8] Huang Shuping (黄淑萍,2011), 习语翻译与文化对比,《牡丹江教育学院学报》 (5) 。 [9] Liu Runqing & Wen Xu (刘润清、文旭,2006),《新编语言学教程》 。北京:外语教学 与研究出版社。 [10] Peng Qinghua (彭庆华,2007),《英语习语研究:语用学视角》 。北京:社会科学文献 出版社。 [11] Wang Ning (王宁,2011), 英语习语的文化差异及翻译策略, 《英语广场》 (11) 。 [12] Wang Xue (王雪,2011), 英汉习语的文化差异及翻译, 《海外英语》 。 [13] Zheng Shengheng (郑声衡,2008), 从文化差异角度研究英汉习语的翻译, 《商洛学 院学报》 22(1) :62—66。

Acknowledgements
I would like to express my gratitude to all those who have helped me
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湖北科技学院本科毕业论文:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

during the writing of this thesis. My deepest gratitude goes first and foremost to my supervisor, Ms. Zeng Zhenzhen, who has offered me valuable suggestions in the academic studies. In the preparation of the thesis, she has spent much time reading through each draft and provided me with inspiring advice. Without her patient instruction, insightful criticism and expert guidance, the completion of this thesis would not have been possible. I also owe a special debt of gratitude to all the professors in Foreign Language Institute, from whose devoted teaching and enlightening lectures I have benefited a lot and academically prepared for the thesis. Last but not the least, my gratitude also extends to my family, my friends and classmates who have been assisting, supporting and caring for me all the time.

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附件一:课题任务书

湖北科技学院
毕业设计(论文)课题任务书
(2011 ---- 2012 学年)
课题名称 学生姓名 指导教师 课题概述: 随着全球化进程的步伐加快和各国间文化交流的增多,习语 ---语言的精华、文化的镜 子---在跨文化交流中越来越重要,成为人们了解外国文化的重要窗口和途径。然而,习语是 经过长期的社会实践提炼出来的,它具有寓意深刻、形象简洁、表达力强、文化内涵丰富等 特点,理解习语并正确运用习语并非易事。在认识习语的过程中如果脱离特定的文化背景而 孤立地看待习语的存在与含义,往往会觉得它在文章或语言中的含义晦涩难懂,从而影响对 其表达信息的接受,所以研究习语应考虑到文化因素。 本课题以英汉习语为研究对象,探讨习语的文化差异和翻译方法。国内外学者对习语进 行了很多研究,但过去的研究主要关注习语的类型、语义、句法特征等而忽略了习语的文化 因素,如今文化因素在习语研究中受到重视,很多学者在英汉习语对比研究方面提出了一些 精辟的观点。 本课题可根据英汉习语的文化性选择相应的理论指导,论述时应特别注意选择详实的事 例辅助,避免纯理论性的描述。 英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译 李爱英 曾臻珍 学号 082724009 院系 外国语学院 专业 1 英语

指导人数

原始资料及主要参数(设计类) :

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附件一:课题任务书

参考资料及文献:

[1] 常晨光(2004) , 《英语习语与人际意义》 。广州:中山大学出版社。 [2] 邓炎昌、刘润清(1989) , 《语言与文化:英汉语言与文化对比》 。北京:外语教 学与研究出版社。 [3] 冯庆华、陈科芳(2008) , 《汉英翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [4] 冯庆华、穆雷(2008) , 《英汉翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [5] 蹇岸英(2011) , The Differences of Cultural Connotations between English and Chinese Idioms,《海外英语》 (7) 。 [6] 彭清华(2007) , 《英语习语研究:语用学视角》 。北京:社会科学文献出版社。

设计(论文)成果要求: 外文翻译原文可为一篇或多篇外文,译文字数不得少于 3000 个汉字; 文献综述内容必须同此课题密切相关,对本课题当前的研究现状进行总结,阐明自己的研究 目的和意义,字数要求为 3000 字左右; 在完成前两项工作后应尽快完成开题报告的撰写和开题准备; 论文正文部分长度不得少于 3000 英文单词(不包括中英文摘要和参考文献的字数) 。 各部分文稿必须符合格式规范(参照毕业论文指导手册) 。

起止日期 2011 年 10 月 2012 年 1 月 2012 年 2 月 进 度 及 要 求 2012 年 3 月 2012 年 4 月 2012 年 4 月 23 日前 2012 年 4 月 27-28 日

要求完成的内容及质量 确定论文选题(方向) ,收集相关资料 完成外文翻译 完成文献综述 完成开题报告、论文初稿 完成论文二稿、修改稿 完成论文定稿 论文答辩 各阶段论文材料应做到内容充实,结构合理; 观点清晰,语言准确;格式规范,层次分明。严 禁抄袭、剽窃他人成果。

课题组审核

院系意见

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毕 业 论 文

外文文献翻译
译文题目:英汉饮食习语的文化差异及其翻译 学生姓名: 专 业: 英 语

指导教师:

2012 年 1 月

附件二:外文翻译

外文翻译
Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation
Chunli Yang In most languages, idioms are created by the laboring people and the local people during their daily life, so naturally, the words that describe the necessities people use or the food they eat are used frequently in idioms. Because of the special living conditions and the geographical situations, the western people like eating the food that can provide them enough energy, calories and high nutritious. Meat is the favorite food of the English people, they prefer beef, mutton, chicken, and game meat, but eat less pork than Chinese people, for Islamism is one of their major religion, and people from such a group refuse to eat pork. They are used to preparing fruits in every meal, and they also like drinking wines such as beer, grape wine and liquor. Toasted bread is made as their main course, and if there are pudding, soup, ham and fresh vegetables, that would be a wonderful dinner. Except various wines, the western people also like drinking milk and tea. They even make such a kind of habit as a part of their life. They like to drink the black tea from China but the way of drinking is different from the Chinese people. Fixed time is one of their characters in every afternoon; English people will choose a suitable place and enjoy the beautiful afternoon with some friends under the warm sunshine with a cup of mixed milk-tea. All of these eating habits have a close relation with the particular geographical conditions. The Great Britain is an island country with large area of oceans around, and the warm temperature and marine climate make this place good for the growth of the grass, and for the development of stockbreeding. Because of the long coastline of England, their lives can not be kept without the Marine Fisheries. The fast pace of the modern life makes the fast food popular in American?s life. Hamburgers and hotdogs can be found in every restaurant and snack stall with steaks, fried chicken, seafood and salad. After every meal, dessert will be prepared, and this part always contains: apple-pie, cheese cake, chocolate, ice-cream, sundae and so on. In china, rice and wheat are considered the materials for the main course. Their interests are on the taste of food, so the kinds of dished and cooking techniques are various, such as pan-frying, stir-frying, quick-frying, deep-frying, stewing, and smoking. These differences reflect on the use of words in idioms. These words not only can be used to describe food but also own the characteristic of a certain nation. That is to say, these words not only own their conceptual meaning, but also have abundant figurative meaning and reflected meaning. 2.1. The Favorite Food of the Western People and the Related Idioms
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附件二:外文翻译

2.1.1. Idioms Which Contains “Bread” Like rice in the life of the Chinese, bread also plays a very important way in the western people?s daily life; so there are large numbers of idioms that contains the word “bread”, such as: A. Bread and Butter The meaning of this idiom is the way of somebody to earn his living, and the second meaning is “common things”. For example: It is a bread and butter diamond. It means a common diamond. Although there are differences between the two meanings, they are still very similar. But it is not always used that way; a bread-and-butter letter is no longer a common letter but a kind of letter to show the thanks of the guests to the host?s warm reception. B. Earn One?s Bread This idiom has the same meaning as “earn one?s living”, for example: He now earns his bread by doing odd jobs. C. Hope is poor man?s bread. The initial meaning of this sentence is that if a poor man wants to survive he should not give up his hope toward life. 2.1.2. Idioms Which Contains “Butter” Butter is also a necessary part in the meal of the western people. Except the examples listed above, there are other expressions, like: A. Butter Up This idiom means to praise or flatter somebody excessively to try to change someone?s mind by doing things for him or her and being really nice so he or she will do what they want. This saying comes from the simple act of buttering a piece of plain bread which is like making it look and taste better, this is the same as flattering a person, for example: He began to butter up the boss in hope of being given a better job. But “to butter up somebody” means to entrap or ensnare someone. The two meaning of the idiom is contrary to each other. 2.1.3. Idioms Which Contains “Potato” The custom of eating potato in America has been kept for a long time and that can be dated to the foundation of the country. Although it is said that potato is originally planted in Holland, it has already become a part of English. In the colonial period, the culture of potato has also been passed to America. As a result, the Americans also express their interests on potatoes in idioms: A. “A hot potato” refers to a trouble or a difficult problem which can not be solved easily. The meaning can be easily understood from the image described in the idiom. B. “A big potato” is used to describe an important person.
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附件二:外文翻译

C. “A couch potato” is used to describe a kind of person who lives a life with minimum effort or an inactive TV addict. Television was invented in the 1940s?; this idiom dates from the 1970?s, and has a close relation with the television. Some people say that because the Americans like keeping themselves in the sofa and eating potato chips when they were watching TV. 2.2. The Words of Diet Used in Chinese Idioms Compared with the warm temperate maritime climate of the Great Britain, the continental climate of China makes it an agricultural country. Because of the particular national conditions, the large numbers of people and the shortage of average natural resources make the need for food more urgent. Grains are planted in abundance in all directions of the whole country, among them, corns, wheat, rice are the most popular ones. Although meat, especially pork is Chinese people?s favorite food, the expensive price can not be accepted by most of the people in the past. As a result, the kinds of dishes are abundant, and the shortage of food makes the Chinese people explore their intelligence and invented many cooking methods to cook food, which make Chinese dishes famous both at home and abroad. 2.2.1. Rice The importance of rice in China can be compared to bread in English. It is the main course in almost every meal of all the families especially in the southern part of China. There are a lot of idioms which contain the symbol of “rice”, that is “mi” in Chinese, such as: A. Qiao fu nan wei wu mi zhi chui It means no matter how clever a housewife is, she can not cook without materials. B. Bu wei wu dou mi zhe yao It is used to describe a person who never gives up his principles to be a better man when he is faced with benefits. C. Bai yang mi yang bai yang ren It means everyone is different in their minds, appearances and the way they treated others. 2.2.2. Other vegetables Except rice, Chinese people also like eating vegetables, bean curd, lotus root, and sauce, so the idioms of diet are: A. Dao zi zui, dou fu xin It means although the person likes scolding others, actually he is a kind man. For example: Although his mouth is sharp as the knife, his heart is soft like the bean curd. B. Huang hua cai dou liang le It means everything is late, “huang hua cai ” is a kind of vegetable which is common in Chinese dishes, but here it is a metaphor, and it is compared to somebody or something which
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附件二:外文翻译

is late to do something or which is delayed and can not be solved any more. C. Luo bo bai cai, ge you suo ai In this sentence there are two common vegetables, and it is traditionally used to talk about people who have different opinions and could not agree with the others. But it is usually translated as “every man has his hobbyhorse”, which can not be directly translated to “everyone loves his cabbage and radish”. D. Ou duan si lian In Chinese literature works, authors choose this idiom to describe a special relationship between two people, especially a man and a woman who still keeps contact with each other after they break up. “ou” is a kind of vegetable planted in the south of china, the character of it is when it is cut apart, there are still fiber connect each part of it. In translation, it can not be translated directly into “lotus root” because it is not familiar to the western people. 3. Different Ways of Translation on Different Diet Idioms in English and Chinese 3.1 Finding the Same Structure in English and Chinese Idioms 3.1.1. Completely Similar Structures A. Idioms Which Have the Same Structure but Can Not Be Translated Directly a. “Kill the Goose” that Lays the Golden Eggs At the first sight of this idiom, if you are familiar with Chinese idioms, it is easy to find the sentence that has the same structure in Chinese that is “sha ji qu luan”, except t his, by considering the habit of word-using of the western people, it can be easier for you to understand the meaning of the phrase or sentence, because the word “goose” in English always has the same meaning as “chicken” in Chinese. b. “A Piece of Cake” can be easily translated into “xiao cai yi die” if you know this Chinese idiom and the Chinese culture on dishes and diet. c. “As a man sows, so shall he reap” This idiom can be translated into “zhong gua de gua, zhong dou de dou”. In both of English and Chinese there are similar expressions, so it is easy to translate this kind of idioms. d. In the idiom “to have one?s cake and eat it” can be translated into “yu yu xiong zhang liang zhe jian de” for in Chinese idiom here is a saying: “yu yu xiong zhang bu ke jian de”.The meaning is when you are in such a condition, you must choose one and give up the other one. They both have the same meaning. But in most of the time, because of the great differences in English and Chinese culture we can not always find the idioms which have both similar structures and similar meanings, for example: From the structure of the idiom “one cannot make a silk purse out of a sow?s ear” people will at once find an idiom which has the same structure in Chinese, that is “qiao fu nan wei wu mi zhi chui”, but in the following sentence, you will find problems:
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附件二:外文翻译

What is the use of a scholarship to that boy? He will never be a gentleman; you might as well try to make a silk purse out of a sow?s ear. In this sentence, the meaning of this idiom is “you cannot make something good of what is by nature bad or inferior in quality”. Apparently, “sow?s ear” refers to “bad material”, and “silk purse” refers to “good things”, so the Oxford Dictionary translate this idiom into “huai cai liao zao bu chu hao dong xi” which means one can not make productions with good quality from bad materials. On this point it has the similar meaning with the Chinese saying, “xiu mu bu ke diao”. B. Idioms Which Has the Same Structure and the Same Figurative Meaning This kind of idiom takes a little part in languages. They have the same structures and the same figurative meaning, so translating them directly not only can make the readers understand but also does well for keeping the original style of the material. For example, “tang yi pao dan” can be translated directly into “sugar-coated bullets” and “sour grapes” can be translated directly into “suan pu tao”, and the peculiar reason is that because of the communication between the western and eastern, some new words are introduced from one country to another and become one part of the local people as time passes by. Source: Chunli Yang (2010). Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation. http://journal.ccsenet.org.phtbj168.com/index.php/elt/article/view/5246/4344 (accessed 15/01/12)

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附件二:外文翻译

英汉饮食习语的文化差异及其翻译
杨春丽 大多数语言中的习语是劳动人民和当地人民在日常生活中创造的,所以那些描述人 们所用的必需品或者他们所吃的食物的词语,自然就常被用在习语中。由于特殊的生活 条件和地理环境,西方人喜欢能提供足够的能量和热量以及营养价值高的食物。肉类是 他们最喜欢的食物,如牛肉、羊肉、鸡肉和野味。但与中国人相比,他们很少吃猪肉, 因为伊斯兰教是他们的主要宗教之一,信奉伊斯兰教的人拒绝吃猪肉。用餐时,西方人 习惯准备一些水果,他们也喜欢喝酒,如啤酒、葡萄酒和白酒。他们的主菜是烤面包, 若有布丁、汤、火腿和新鲜蔬菜,那将是一顿丰盛的晚餐。除了各种酒,西方人还喜欢 喝牛奶和喝茶,甚至把它养成习惯,使之成为生活的一部分。他们喜欢喝中国的红茶, 但饮用方式和中国人不同。其中一个特点就是每天下午的饮用时间固定。他们会选择合 适的位置,叫上几个朋友,然后在温暖的阳光下边喝奶茶边享受这美妙的下午。所有这 些饮食习惯都与特殊的地理环境紧密相连。英国是一个被大面积海域环绕的岛国,温暖 的温带海洋性气候使该地有利于草的生长和畜牧业的发展。英国有很长的海岸线,所以 英国人的生活离不开渔业。快节奏的现代生活使快餐在美国流行。人们可以在每家餐厅 发现汉堡包和热狗,在小吃摊位发现牛排、炸鸡、海鲜和沙拉。每顿饭后,他们会准备 甜点,甜点通常包括苹果馅饼、芝士蛋糕、巧克力、冰淇淋、圣代等。 在中国,大米和小麦被视为主菜的材料。中国人的喜好在于食物的味道,所以有多 种烹饪技术,如煎、炒、快炸、长炸、炖和熏。这些差异体现在习语中的词语运用方面。 这些词语不仅被用来描述食物,而且具有民族特征。也就是说,这些词语不仅有概念意 义,还有丰富的比喻意义和象征意义。 2.1. 西方人最喜欢的食物及相关习语 2.1.1. 包含“bread (面包)”一词的习语 正如大米在中国人的生活中很重要,面包在西方人的日常生活中也很重要,所以有 大量包含“bread (面包)”一词的习语。例如: A. Bread and Butter 这条习语的意思是指某人谋生的方法,它的第二种意思是“普通的事物” 。例如:It is a bread and butter diamond。该习语在此句中的意思是指普通的钻石。虽然这两种意思 有差异,但它们仍很相似。可是,这个习语并不总是这样用;a bread-and-butter letter 不 是指普通的信件而是指客人用来感谢主人的热情款待的信件。 B. Earn One?s Bread 这条习语和 “earn one?s living (谋生) ” 意思相同, 例如: He now earns his bread by doing odd jobs (他现在靠打零工谋生)。 C. Hope is poor man?s bread 这句话最初的意思是指如果一个穷人想要生存下来,他就不能放弃生活的希望。
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附件二:外文翻译

2.1.2. 包含“butter (黄油)”一词的习语 黄油也是西方人饮食中的必要部分。 除了上面所列举的例子, 还有其它相关的短语。 如: A. Butter Up 这条习语是指过度赞美或奉承某人, 试图改变某人的主意而为他/她做事、 假装友好, 这样他/她就会满足奉承者的要求。 这句话来源于给一块普通的面包涂黄油这一简单的动 作,该动作使面包变得更加好看而美味。这就如同奉承一个人,例如:He began to butter up the boss in hope of being given a better job(他开始奉承老板,希望得到一份更好的工 作) 。但“to butter up somebody”是指诱骗或坑害某人。这条习语的两种意思彼此相反。 2.1.3.包含“potato(土豆) ”一词的习语 在美国,吃土豆的习惯已被延续了很长时间,可以追溯到美国成立的时候。据说土 豆最初生长在荷兰,但是它已经成为英国的一部分。在殖民时期,土豆文化已被传入美 国。因此,美国人也用习语来表达他们对土豆的喜好: A. “A hot potato”是指一个麻烦或者一个不能轻易解决的棘手问题。这个意思可以很 容易地从习语所描述的形象中理解。 B. “A big potato”被用来形容一个重要的人。 C. “A coach potato”被用来形容那种生活中不积极奋斗或者不爱活动而沉迷于电视的 人。电视机发明于 20 世纪 40 年代;该习语可追溯至 20 世纪 70 年代,它与电视机联系 紧密。一些人认为,这是因为美国人看电视时喜欢一直坐在沙发上吃土豆条。 2.2. 汉语习语中的饮食用语 与英国温暖的温带海洋性气候相比,中国的大陆性气候使得它是一个农业国。由于 特殊的国情,人口众多和平均自然资源短缺使粮食需求更加迫切。粮食种植遍布全国各 地,其中,种植最多的是玉米、小麦和大米。尽管肉类,尤其是猪肉是中国人最喜欢的 食物,但过去大部分人无法负担这昂贵的价格。结果,人们做出了各种菜肴,粮食的短 缺也促使人们用自己的智慧发明了很多烹饪方法,中国菜得以扬名国内外。 2.2.1. 米 大米在中国的重要性就像面包在英国一样重要。在中国特别是在中国南部,家家户 户几乎每餐都吃米饭。有很多包含“rice”一词的习语吗,它在汉语里是指“米” ,如: A. 巧妇难为无米之炊 它的意思是无论多么聪明能干的妇女,没有米她也做不出饭来。 B. 不为五斗米折腰 它被用来形容一个人的清高,即使面对利益的诱惑,也不放弃自己做人的准则。 C. 百样米养百样人 它是指每个人的思想、相貌以及对待他人的方式是不同的。 2.2.2. 其它蔬菜 除了米饭,中国人也喜欢吃蔬菜、豆腐、莲藕和酱,所以这类饮食习语有:
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附件二:外文翻译

A. 刀子嘴,豆腐心 它的意思是虽然这个人喜欢训斥他人,但实际上他是个善良的人。例如:虽然他说 话如刀子般犀利,但他的心像豆腐一样柔软。 B. 黄花菜都凉了 它的意思是一切都晚了。 “黄花菜”是中国菜中常见的一种蔬菜,但在这里它是一个 比喻,这条习语比喻某人或某物做某事太迟了,或者某事因被耽搁而再也无法解决了。 C. 萝卜白菜,各有所爱 这句话中有两种常见的蔬菜,它历来是指人们有不同于他人的观点。但是,它不能 直译为“everyone loves his cabbage and radish” ,所以常被翻译成“every man has his hobbyhorse” 。 D. 藕断丝连 在中国的文学作品中,作者用这个习语来描述两个人之间的特殊关系,多指男女分 手后却仍相互联系。 “藕”是一种生长在中国南方的蔬菜,它的特点是当它被切断时, 各部分仍被纤维连接在一起。由于西方人对它不熟悉,所以翻译时,不能把它直译为 “lotus root” 。 3. 英汉饮食习语的翻译方法 3.1. 寻找具有相同结构的英汉习语 3.1.1. 完全类似的结构 A. 有相同结构但不能直译的习语 a. “Kill the Goose” that Lays the Golden Eggs 如果你熟悉汉语习语,那么一看到这条习语,你就能很容易地在汉语中找到具有相 同结构的句子,即“杀鸡取卵” 。除此之外,通过分析西方人的用语习惯,你就能更容 易地理解该短语的意思,因为英语中“鹅”的意思和汉语中“鸡”的意思是一样的。 b. 如果你知道汉语中有“小菜一碟”这个习语,并且了解中国的饮食文化,你就能很容 易地翻译出“A piece of cake” 。 c. “As a man sows, so shall he reap” 这条习语可以用“种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆”来翻译。英语和汉语有类似的表述,所以 翻译此类习语就容易了。 d. 汉语中有“鱼与熊掌不可兼得”的习语,它是指必须选择一个而放弃另一个的情况, 所以我们可以把“to have one?s cake and eat it”翻译成“鱼与熊掌两者兼得” 。他们有相 同的意思。但大多数情况下,由于英汉文化的巨大差异,我们不能总在英语和汉语中找 到具有类似结构和类似意义的习语,例如:根据习语“one cannot make a silk purse out of a sow?s ear”的结构,人们可以很快地在汉语中找到具有相同结构的习语,即“巧妇难为 无米之炊” ,但在下面这个句子中,你就会发现问题: What is the use of a scholarship to that boy? He will never be a gentleman; you might as well try to make a silk purse out of a sow?s ear.
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附件二:外文翻译

在这个句子中,该习语的意思是“你不能把原本是劣质的东西变成好的” 。显而易 见, “sow?s ear”是指“坏材料” , “silk purse”是指“好东西” ,所以牛津词典把这条习 语翻译成“坏材料造不出好东西” ,意思是人们不能用坏材料制造出高质量的产品。在 这一点上,它的意思和汉语习语“朽木不可雕”的意思接近。 B. 具有相同结构和比喻意义的习语 这种习语在语言中不多见。他们具有相同的结构和相同的比喻意义,所以直译这类 习语不仅能让读者理解,还能很好地保留原文的风格。例如, “糖衣炮弹”可以直译为 “sugar-coated bullets” ; “sour grapes”可以直译为“酸葡萄” 。另外,中西方之间的交流 促使一些新词从一个国家传入另一个国家,并且随着时间的推移,这些新词成为当地人 民的一部分。 外文来源:Chunli Yang (2010). Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation. http://journal.ccsenet.org.phtbj168.com/index.php/elt/article/view/5246/4344 (accessed 15/01/12)

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毕 业 论 文

文 献 综 述

学生姓名: 专 业: 英 语

指导教师:

2012 年 2 月

附件三:文献综述

文献综述
一、前言
世界上每一种语言都是在一定文化环境中发展并受到民族文化的哺育,形成不同于 其它语言的特色(黄淑萍,2011) 。随着中国对外开放程度的逐步深入,中西方之间的 交流越来越频繁,尤其是加入 WTO 和举办奥运会、世博会等一些大型的国际性活动, 以及开办《汉语桥》 、 《星光大道》等电视节目,更是给中西文化交流提供了契机,语言 交际日益受到重视。语言在不断发展过程中,积累了大量习语(熊咏萍,2011) 。习语 是人民经过长时间的积累与使用而提炼出来的固定短语或短句(党群英,2010) ,广义 的习语包括俗语、谚语、俚语和典故等,它是“一个社会的语言和文化的重要组成部分 (邓炎昌、刘润清,1989) ” 。这部分语言不仅难于理解,更难于运用得当。能否正确使 用习语往往是一个人语言水平的标志。 不同的习语所传递的文化信息不同,而这种差异正是翻译的难点。若不正确处理这 些文化因素,在翻译中难免会出现文化误解或文化流失。 (官煜瑜,2005)作为两种高 度发展的语言,英、汉习语蕴含强烈的民族文化特征,反映出两个民族在地域文化、历 史文化、风俗文化、宗教文化以及价值观念等方面也存在着很多差异。所以了解英汉习 语的文化背景对于习语的理解和使用,了解中西文化差异是至关重要的。很多学者,如 冯庆华、郑声衡、周建华、金香等,对英汉习语的文化差异进行了细致研究并提出了一 些翻译策略。本文拟在现有研究的基础上,从文化角度对英汉习语进行对比研究,分析 文化差异,探讨习语的翻译方法。

二、主体
2.1 习语的概念与特征 2.1.1 习语的定义 国内外语言学界对英语习语的研究虽然已有半个多世纪的历史,但迄今为止,对英 语习语的界定还没有一个大家公认的定义。语言研究者和词典编纂家主要提出了 11 种 习语解释,各有偏重。有的学者主张习语应限于习用的词组或短语;有的则认为习语统 指词的习惯组合, 因而在形式上既有短语, 又有句子; 也有的把习语的范围再加以扩大, 除指词的各种组合以外,还包括一些单词的独特习惯用法。有的学者主张以语义的特殊 或不可分割作为确定习语的标准;有的则以习语的结构形态(包括词的搭配和词序)是 否固定为主要依据;还有的把习用特殊语法结构也列为习语。 (彭庆华,2007) 根据前人的观点,我国学者常晨光在 McCarthy 对英语习语定义的基础上提出了被 许多学者所认同的习语定义: An idiom is “a conventionalized multi-word expression whose syntactic, lexical, and phonological form is to a greater or lesser degree fixed, and whose semantics and discoursal functions are opaque or specialized, also to a greater or lesser degree”(习语是一种在语音、词法和句法上形式相对固定的、习用的多词表达方法,其
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附件三:文献综述

语义和话语功能一般不透明或比较特别)(常晨光,2004) 。该定义范围内的英语习语包 括句式习语、半句式习语、动词性短语、介词性短语、名词性习语、形容词性成语、成 对词、固定的明喻。 2.1.2 习语的特征 语言学界对习语的特征也进行了很多研究, 如陈岩、 党群英、 彭庆华等。 陈岩 (2011) 认为习语有两个主要特征,即语义的统一性和结构的固定性。党群英(2010)认为习语 具有统一性、文化性和修辞性。彭庆华(2007)认为:英语习语的特征包括基本特征和 独有特征。一般说来,英语习语的基本特征指长期的习用性、结构的固定性和语言的整 体性。而英语习语的独有特征则主要是指习语文化、功能的多样性,语义的特殊性和类 型的复杂性。 虽然各学者对习语的特征各有所见、各有偏重,但他们所谈到的习语特征的内涵大 体相似,而学者彭庆华对习语特征的概括则比较全面。 2.2 国内外对习语的相关研究 近年来,在语言学与应用语言学界越来越多的国内外学者认为,词块在语言学习与 运用中起着重要作用。习语是词块的重要组成部分,可以说人们目前所讨论的词块,绝 大多数的属于习语范畴。 长期以来, 国内外英语专家和学者从不同角度对习语进行研究, 形成了不同的学派。习语研究已经历了几个阶段。 我国学者常晨光(2004)在其所著的《英语习语与人际意义》一书中指出英语习语 研究大致可分为以下几个主要的流派: (1)以 C.F.Hockett、A.Maikai、T.F.Mitchell、A.Healey 等为代表的语义学派。他们主 要研究习语语义的非组合性,从词块而非篇章来探讨习语的定义、本质和分类。 (2)以 J.J.Katz﹠P.Postal、U.Weinreich、B.Fraser 等为代表的句法学派。他们用转 换生成语法理论来研究习语的句法结构和习语特征的标志。 (3)以 Wray、Peters、DeCarrico 等为代表的心理语言学派。他们主要在语境中研究 习语。 (4)以 McCarthy、C.Fernando、R.Moon 等为代表的广泛功能学派或交际学派。他们主 要从词汇和篇章的角度研究习语在文章中的功能。 语言学界对英语习语的研究已有很长的历史了, 彭庆华教授 (2007) 在其所著的 《英 语习语研究:语用学视角》一书中将习语研究历史分为以下几个阶段: (1)以英国语言学家 Smith 为代表的早期语言学家主要对习语的来源和表达功能进行 综合分类和阐释。Smith 主要探索习语的来源和结构,并对习语的来源进行了分类,同 时强调了习语的基本特征。Smith 也很注意习语内部结构的奇特性,但很少涉及习语的 意义和理解。 (2)20 世纪 30 年代至 50 年,以 C.F.Hockett 为代表的语言学家强调了语境在识别和解 释习语中的重要地位,并完善了习语的整体性、凝固性和不可替换性的特征。 (3) 50 年代后习语研究的步伐较为缓慢。 以 B.Fraser 为代表的语言学家开始用生成转
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附件三:文献综述

换理论来研究习语的深层结构,尤其是习语的转换能力问题,提出了习语固定性等级 (Frozenness Hierachy)的理论。 (4)近年来,习语的研究已发展到有关习语的文化、功能、语用和翻译等方面,并取 得了可喜成就。 2.3 英汉习语的文化差异 文化是什么?从广义上讲, 文化指人类社会历史实践过程中所创造的物质财富和精 神财富的总和。狭义地讲,文化指社会意识形态以及与之相对应的制度和组织机构,有 时也特指教育、科学、文学、艺术等方面的精神财富,以便与政治、经济、军事等方面 的知识和设施相区别。 (黄淑萍,2011)不管从广义还是狭义上讲,语言都属于文化范 畴。语言是文化的载体,是传达文化的一种符号,但它又受到文化的影响,反映文化。 可以说,语言反映一个民族的特征,它不仅包含着该民族的历史和文化背景,而且蕴藏 着该民族对人生的看法、生活方式和思维方式(邓炎昌、刘润清,1989) 。 英汉两种语言反映着不同的民族文化,它们之间有很多不同即文化差异。英汉两种 语言包含大量的习语,习语是语言的精华,不同的习语所传递的文化信息不同,因此习 语成为众多学者研究的重要课题。从很多学者对英汉习语的研究中可知,英汉习语的文 化差异主要表现在以下几个方面: (1)生活环境 (2)历史文化 (3)宗教信仰 (4)风俗习惯 (5)价值观念 了解英汉习语的文化差异对于寻找有效的翻译策略有很大帮助,为更好地理解并运 用英汉习语打下基础,减少英汉语言与文化交流中的障碍。 2.4 英汉习语的翻译策略 翻译的概念可以从广义和狭义两个方面去理解。广义的翻译指语言与语言、语言与 非语言之间的代码转换和基本信息的传达。狭义的翻译指一种语言活动,是把一种语言 表达的内容忠实地用另一种语言表达出来。 (冯庆华、穆雷,2008) 翻译的首要目的是交流信息,克服语言障碍(冯庆华、陈科芳,2008) 。因此,探 讨英汉习语的翻译策略是很必要的。综合一些学者所探讨的习语翻译方法,习语的翻译 策略主要有六种: (1)直译:即保存原文的内容和形式。 (2)意译:即不拘泥于原文的形式,重在保存原文的思想内容。 (3)套(代)译:即用目的语中已有的相对应或意思相近的语言来翻译原语。 (4)直译兼意译:有时单独使用直译或者意译无法将原语的意思很好地表达出来,需 要把同时使用直译和意译。 (5)直/意译加注解
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附件三:文献综述

(6)省译法

三、总结
根据在中国期刊网和维普、万方等几大数据库的搜索调查,关于英汉习语的文化差 异和翻译的研究大有所在,并有不同观点,但研究的角度大致相同。 近代以来,随着中西方文化交流的日益频繁,英汉两种语言都从对方吸收了大量习 语,但和植根于各自民族传统、文化等方面的习语相比,仍不占主要地位。由于两大民 族的不同历史、不同地域、不同习惯等,经过历史积淀而来的习语,在文化内涵上虽然 有类似之处,但更多的是差异。通过对比研究英语习语和汉语习语的文化差异,探讨习 语的翻译方法,有利于跨文化交际,进一步了解英汉文化。

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附件三:文献综述

参考文献
[1] 常晨光(2004) , 《英语习语与人际意义》 。广州:中山大学出版社。 [2] 党群英(2010) ,英汉翻译中的词类转换法综述, 《考试周刊》 (4) 。 [3] 邓炎昌、刘润清(1989) , 《语言与文化:英汉语言与文化对比》 。北京:外语教学与 研究出版社。 [4] 冯庆华、陈科芳(2008) , 《汉英翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [5] 冯庆华、穆雷(2008) , 《英汉翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [6] 顾群超(1999) ,英汉习语文化内涵上的差异及研究意义, 《绍兴文理学院学报》 19 (1) :81—84。 [7] 官煜瑜(2005) ,英汉习语文化对比与翻译研究,硕士学位论文。福建:福建师范大 学。 [8] 黄淑萍(2011) ,习语翻译与文化对比, 《牡丹江教育学院学报》 (5) 。 [9] 蹇岸英(2011) ,The Differences of Cultural Connotations between English and Chinese Idioms,《海外英语》 (7) 。 [10] 金香(2011) ,浅析英汉文化差异下的习语翻译, 《科教导刊》 (26) 。 [11] 林达祥(2004) , 《英文成语典故》 。上海:上海科学技术出版社。 [12] 李梦欣(2003) ,从跨文化交际的角度看中西方语言与文化的差异, 《河南省政法管 理干部学院学报》 18(4) 。 [13] 彭清华(2007) , 《英语习语研究:语用学视角》 。北京:社会科学文献出版社。 [14] 熊咏萍(2011) ,浅析英汉习语的文化差异, 《湖北广播电视大学学报》 31(11) 。 [15] 周建华(2011) ,从文化差异看英汉习语及翻译策略, 《科教文汇》 (8) 。 [16] 郑声衡(2008) ,从文化差异角度研究英汉习语的翻译, 《商洛学院学报》 22(1) : 62—66。 [17] 张晓红(2011) ,从英汉习语的来源看中西文化差异, 《科教导刊》 (26) 。

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外国语学院

毕业论文开题报告

论文题目:英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译 学生姓名: 专 业: 英 语 学号: 方向: 教师教育

指导教师:

2012 年 3 月

附件四:开题报告

毕 业 论 文 开 题 报 告
1.本课题的研究意义和目的
随着中国对外开放程度的逐步深入,中西方之间的交流越来越频繁,尤其是加入 WTO 和举办奥运会、世博会等一些大型的国际性活动,以及开办《汉语桥》 、 《星光 大道》等电视节目,更是给中西文化交流提供了契机,语言交际日益受到重视。生活 中不难见到:相当多的学习者具有很强的听说读写能力,他们不仅精通语法,而且谈 吐流利。然而在与外国友人交际时却常常会出现交际的障碍和失败,偶尔节外生枝, 产生误会,甚至引起不必要的冲突。究其原因是由于不了解彼此的文化差异,因为文 化差异体现在不同的语言中。语言是文化的载体,语言与文化密不可分。 而习语又是一个民族的语言和文化的重要组成部分,汉英民族历史悠久,文化灿 烂,都有着极为丰富的习语。众所周知,习语在结构上具有固定性,语义上具有整体 性,还有其独特的语言功能。许多习语是经过长期的社会实践提炼出来的,因此它具 有寓意深刻、形象简洁、表达力强、文化内涵丰富等特点。在认识习语的过程中如果 脱离特定的文化背景而孤立地看待习语的存在与含义, 往往会觉得它在文章或语言中 的含义晦涩难懂, 从而影响对其表达信息的接受。所以英汉习语的互译不仅要考虑语 言的转换,而且要考虑文化的转换。翻译家尤金·奈达曾说过: “对于真正成功的翻 译而言, 熟悉两种文化甚至比掌握两种语言更为重要,因为词语只有在其作用的文化 背景中才有意义。 ”因此解决好习语翻译中的文化因素问题是翻译成功的关键,从而 完善我们日益丰富的跨文化交际。 语言学界对习语的研究已有很长的历史: 以英国语言学家 Smith 为代表的早期语 言学家主要对习语的来源和表达功能进行综合分类和阐释;20 世纪 30 年代至 50 年, 以 C.F.Hockett 为代表的语言学家强调了语境在识别和解释习语中的重要地位,并完 善了习语的整体性、凝固性和不可替换性的特征;50 年代后,语言学家开始用生成 转换理论来研究习语的深层结构,尤其是习语的转换能力问题;近年来,习语的研究 已发展到有关习语的文化、功能、语用和翻译等方面。引起学者普遍关注的是习语所 传递的文化信息在翻译中可能出现文化流失或文化误解, 文化差异和翻译策略成为许 多学者研究习语的主要课题。 本文拟在现有研究的基础上,从文化角度对英汉习语进行对比研究,分析文化差 异,探讨习语的翻译方法。

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附件四:开题报告

2.本课题的基本内容、重点及难点

基本内容:本文的题目:英汉习语的文化差异及翻译,共分六部分。 第一部分:导论 简要介绍该课题的学术背景、研究现状、目的和意义。 1.研究背景:随着中国改革开放程度的逐渐深入,中西文化的融合渗透,习语在人们 的交流中发挥着越来越重要的作用, 习语的文化内涵及其翻译方法成为国内外学者研 究的重要方向。 2.研究目的:本文通过对英汉两种语言的对比研究,分析英汉习语的文化差异,探讨 习语的翻译方法。 3.论文结构:全文共有六大部分,各有侧重点。 第二部分:语言与文化 分别定义语言和文化;首先,阐述语言与文化的密切联系;其次,阐述不同的语言、 文化之间存在差异,这种差异有时会造成文化之间交流的障碍。 第三部分:习语与文化 给出习语的定义、特点,谈习语与文化的关系及理解习语的重要性。 第四部分:体现英汉习语的文化差异的几个方面 分别从生活环境、历史文化、宗教信仰、风俗习惯和价值观念这几个方面来谈英汉习 语的文化差异。 第五部分:习语的翻译方法 先介绍几种常用的习语翻译方法: 直译、意译、套(代)译。 然后介绍一些其它的翻译方法。 有些习语的意思无法很好地通过上面提到的几种常用 的翻译方法表达出来,这时就要用到一些其他的方法: 直译加意译、直/意译加注译、省译 第六部分:总结 重点:通过对比,探讨英汉习语存在的文化差异,以及比较适合的习语翻译方法。 难点:如何在习语翻译中解决好文化因素问题。

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附件四:开题报告

毕 业 设 计(论文) 开 题 报 告
3.本课题的研究方法(或技术路线)

在指导老师的帮助下确定论文题目,然后从图书馆书籍、期刊收集资料,通过互 联网找到与课题相关的研究资料,并且仔细分析所收集的资料,筛选出主要信息和参 考信息。通过符合客观情况的真实材料,提出自己合理的观点。然后制定提纲,再在 大量阅读文献的基础上完成初稿,并在指导老师的指导下形成完整论文的正稿。

4.论文提纲

Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms and Idiomatic Translation 1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the analysis 1.2 The Purpose of the analysis 1.3 The structure of the thesis 2. Language and Culture 2.1 The definition of language 2.2 The definition of culture 2.3 Relationship between language and culture 2.4 Divergences between language and culture 3. Idioms and Culture 3.1 The definition and characteristics of idioms 3.2 Relationship between idioms and culture 3.3 The importance of understanding idioms 4. Main Aspects of Cultural Differences between English and Chinese Idioms 4.1 Living environment 4.2 Historical culture 4.3 Religious beliefs 4.4 Customs or living habits 4.5 Values 5. Methods of Idiomatic Translation 5.1 Some common methods of translating idioms 5.1.1 Literal translation 5.1.2 Liberal translation

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附件四:开题报告

5.1.3 Substitution 5.2 Some other methods of translating idioms 5.2.1 Literal translation + liberal translation 5.2.2 Literal / liberal translation + annotation 5.2.3 Omission 6. Conclusion Bibliography

5.本课题的参考文献资料

[1] 常晨光(2004) , 《英语习语与人际意义》 。广州:中山大学出版社。 [2] 党群英(2010) ,英汉翻译中的词类转换法综述, 《考试周刊》 (4) 。 [3] 邓炎昌、刘润清(1989) , 《语言与文化:英汉语言与文化对比》 。北京:外语教 学与研究出版社。 [4] 冯庆华、陈科芳(2008) , 《汉英翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [5] 冯庆华、穆雷(2008) , 《英汉翻译基础教程》 。北京:高等教育出版社。 [6] 官煜瑜(2005) ,英汉习语文化对比与翻译研究,硕士学位论文。福建:福建师 范大学。 [8] 黄淑萍(2011) ,习语翻译与文化对比, 《牡丹江教育学院学报》 (5) 。 [9] 蹇岸英(2011) , The Differences of Cultural Connotations between English and Chinese Idioms,《海外英语》 (7) 。 [10] 金香(2011) ,浅析英汉文化差异下的习语翻译, 《科教导刊》 (26) 。

6.本课题的进度安排

2011 年 10 月 2012 年 1 月 2012 年 2 月 2012 年 3 月 2012 年 4 月 2012 年 4 月 23 日前 2012 年 4 月 27-28 日

确定论文选题(方向) ,收集相关资料 完成外文翻译 完成文献综述 完成开题报告、论文初稿 完成论文二稿、修改稿 完成论文定稿 论文答辩

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附件四:开题报告

毕 业 设 计(论文) 开 题 报 告
指导教师意见:

指导教师: 年 月 日

院系审查意见:

院系负责人: 年 月 日

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湖 北 科 技 学 院 指导教师指导毕业设计(论文)情况表
学生姓名: 题 目: 李爱英 学生学号: 082724009 英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译 曾臻珍 指导教师职称: 讲师

指导教师姓名:

一、指导教师指导过程(指导时间、地点、工作要点、问题、解决办法、结果) :
2011 年 9 月 14 日 在教八二楼办公室,教师与小组成员初次见面谈话,主要围绕怎样确定 论文主题,如何收集论文资料,以及论文进度安排等问题展开。最后, 登记组员每个人的联系方式以便日后联系,并提出相关要求,要求学生 端正态度,加强纪律性和时间观念,须按计划要求上交相关材料。 2011 年 10 月 11 日 通过 QQ 与学生讨论所选题目存在的问题,通过 QQ 邮箱接收学生的论文 提纲,指出问题并建议修改。 2011 年 10 月 12 日 通过 QQ 邮箱接收学生重新选题的论文提纲,指出虽然题目不够新颖, 但结构紧凑、条理清楚,而且有关习语研究的文献很多,建议学生多查 找相关资料,然后完成其它部分。 2012 年 1 月 16 日 2012 年 2 月 16 日 在教八二楼办公室上交外文翻译。 在教八二楼办公室,教师与小组成员见面谈话,主要是根据个人的情况 安排论文任务的进度,要求学生三月中旬前完成开题报告和文献综述。 2012 年 2 月 24 日 接收学生的文献综述和开题报告,并及时反馈,指出格式问题。然后告 知学生参照论文指导手册开始撰写论文初稿。 2012 年 3 月 14 日 2012 年 4 月 5 日 2012 年 4 月 12 日 2012 年 4 月 23 日 2012 年 4 月 27 日 在教八三楼办公室上交论文初稿,指出格式问题,要求尽快上交修改稿。 在教八三楼办公室上交论文修改稿。 在教八三楼办公室教师与学生见面,指出问题,并给出修改建议。 在教八三楼办公室上交论文定稿。并讲解答辩要求和注意事项。 论文答辩,答辩后要求本组学生再检查论文在格式,形式或语法上是否有 瑕疵,力争做到尽善尽美,并准备最终上交的论文电子版和纸质文档。

二、指导教师指导工作总结(课题难度、份量、先进程度等情况,开题报告、文献 综述、外文翻译完成情况,学生基本理论知识及实际运用情况, 学生答辩资格审查、 答辩过程等情况,学生态度及组织纪律等情况,教师指导工作自评等情况,学生成 果质量、成绩及经验、存在的问题及改进措施等情况) :
该学生能在规定的时间内完成外文翻译、文献综述、开题报告及正文的写作,且学习态 度谦虚。在前期收集资料过程中,该学生能够自主独立查阅相关文献资料,并且注重选取资料 的科学性,能够较好分析和提炼材料,做到了去粗取精,因此在文中引用的例子与课题本身相 关性较高。在后期的写作中能主动保持和老师的联系,写作态度谦虚,能积极听取老师意见并 做相应的修改。文章结构合理,层次分明,语言基本规范。 在答辩过程中,该学生态度认真,举止行为端正。在听到评委老师的提问后能够积极回 答,并在评委老师指出论文中存在的一些不足之处时,虚心接受并感谢老师的宝贵意见。 在论文指导过程中,教师力争能做到与学生经常联系,态度平等谦和,及时向学生反馈 意见,并耐心讲解写作要求,对学生提出的问题有问必答,并给出具体的指导方案和建议。致 力于培养学生初步进行科学研究的能力和良好的写作态度。 从本次论文指导工作中总结出在以后教学中应注意事项如下: 1. 学生通过四年学习,虽然具备一定的理论基础知识,但对收集的写作资料仍提炼不够,缺 乏自己的透彻理解,导致写作缺乏一定深度,所以在今后教学中,要早一些提醒学生开始寻找 自己感兴趣的研究话题,并开始学会收集相关写作资料,培养良好的阅读和写作习惯。 2. 一部分学生的论文原创性不够,引用篇幅偏大。语言基本功不够扎实,没有语法正误意识。 针对以上不足,指导老师在今后的日常教学中要给予充分的注意和重视,争取在下一轮的 工作中有所克服、弥补和提高。

指导教师签名: 年 月 日

湖北科技学院

毕业设计(论文)评语
学生姓名: 题 目: 学号 英汉习语的文化差异及其翻译

综合等级: 指导教师评语:

批阅成绩: 指导教师(签字): 年 月 日

毕业设计(论文)评语
评阅教师评语:

评阅成绩: 评阅教师(签字): 年 答辩委员会(小组)评语: 月 日

答辩成绩: 答辩委员会(小组)负责人(签字): 年 月 日


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